Bischofite is an aqueous magnesium chloride MgCl2 * 6H2O. It is a chemogenic substance, or a sedimentary formation resulting from the crystallization of salts in closed water basins. This mineral was discovered in German zechstein (Permian) deposits. It was first studied by German chemist and geologist Karl Gustav Bischof, in whose honor this mineral was named over time. This mineral belongs to the class of halogenides. In nature, it is part of the Permian sea salt deposits. In terms of composition, it is a chlorine-magnesium complex containing salts and trace elements: potassium, calcium, sodium, copper, iron, silicon, titanium, molybdenum, lithium, boron, bromine, iodine, etc.
Bischofite and its solutions are raw materials for the production of magnesium metal and periclases; it is also a component of magnesia binding and balneological preparations and pastes, and much more.
In the fossil state, bischofite is found in the form of salt granular-crystalline rock. In its pure form, bischofite crystals are transparent, but can have a color from white to brown, depending on impurities.
Bischofite has a bitter-salty sharp burning taste, its hardness is 1.5; specific gravity is 1.59-1.61 g/cm3; it is electrically conductive; it dissolves in moisture absorbed from air. Solubility: 1670 g/l in cold water, 3670 g/l in hot water. Bischofite decomposes at a temperature of 116 °C. Its chemical formula is MgCl2 * 6H2O.
Bischofite is extracted by its underground dissolution through wells. When mining by underground dissolution, not crystalline bischofite but its aqueous solution is obtained. The resulting aqueous solution has the same properties as crystalline bischofite. It is a semi-saturated solution with a density of 1.25-1.32 g/cm3, transparent or yellowish, oily to the touch, odorless, non-combustible, non-explosive, hygroscopic, and non-toxic; it has antiseptic properties. The absolute viscosity of the solution is 0.62 cPs at 50 °C.
A solution of natural bischofite is characterized by low corrosivity, which does not exceed the activity of tap water. It can be transported and stored in ordinary metal containers, as well as in glass, ceramic and plastic containers. Shelf life in hermetically sealed containers is unlimited.
A solution of natural bischofite is not mixed with diesel fuel, gasoline, and kerosene.
The freezing point of a natural bischofite solution depends on its density. When the solution density complies with technical specifications TU 25 22529511-003-97 of Ukraine, the freezing temperature is minus 35 °C.